From: www.nobelprize.org

USA (259)
High School
1
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1923
Robert A. Millikan
“for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”
2
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1927
Arthur H. Compton
“for his discovery of the effect named after him”
3
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1936
Carl D. Anderson
“for his discovery of the positron”
4
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1937
Clinton Davisson
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”
5
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1939
Ernest Lawrence
“for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”
6
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1946
Percy W. Bridgman
“for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics”
7
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1952
E. M. Purcell
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”
8
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1955
Willis E. Lamb
“for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”
9
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1956
John Bardeen
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”
10
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1959
Owen Chamberlain
“for their discovery of the antiproton”
11
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1960
Donald A. Glaser
“for the invention of the bubble chamber”
12
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1961
Robert Hofstadter
“for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”
13
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1964
Charles H. Townes
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”
14
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1965
Richard P. Feynman
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”
15
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1965
Julian Schwinger
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”
16
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1968
Luis Alvarez
“for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”
17
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1969
Murray Gell-Mann
“for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”
18
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1972
John Bardeen
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”
19
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1972
Leon N. Cooper
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”
20
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1972
Robert Schrieffer
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”
21
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1975
Ben R. Mottelson
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”
22
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1975
James Rainwater
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”
23
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1976
Burton Richter
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”
24
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1976
Samuel C.C. Ting
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”
25
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1977
Philip W. Anderson
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”
26
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1977
John H. van Vleck
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”
27
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1978
Robert Woodrow Wilson
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”
28
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1979
Sheldon Glashow
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”
29
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1979
Steven Weinberg
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”
30
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1980
James Cronin
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”
31
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1980
Val Fitch
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”
32
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1981
Arthur L. Schawlow
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”
33
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1982
Kenneth G. Wilson
“for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”
34
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1983
William A. Fowler
“for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”
35
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1988
Leon M. Lederman
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”
36
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1988
Melvin Schwartz
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”
37
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1989
Norman F. Ramsey
“for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”
38
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1990
Jerome I. Friedman
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”
39
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1990
Henry W. Kendall
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”
40
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1993
Russell A. Hulse
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”
41
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1993
Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”
42
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1994
Clifford G. Shull
“for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”
43
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1995
Martin L. Perl
“for the discovery of the tau lepton”
44
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1995
Frederick Reines
“for the detection of the neutrino”
45
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1996
David M. Lee
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”
46
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1996
Douglas D. Osheroff
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”
47
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1996
Robert C. Richardson
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”
48
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1997
Steven Chu
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”
49
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1997
William D. Phillips
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”
50
The Nobel Prize in Physics
1998
Robert B. Laughlin
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”
51
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2000
Jack Kilby
“for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”
52
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2001
Eric Cornell
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”
53
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2001
Carl Wieman
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”
54
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2002
Raymond Davis Jr.
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”
55
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2004
David J. Gross
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”
56
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2004
H. David Politzer
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”
57
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2004
Frank Wilczek
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”
58
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2005
Roy J. Glauber
“for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”
59
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2005
John L. Hall
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”
60
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2006
John C. Mather
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”
61
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2006
George F. Smoot
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”
62
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2009
George E. Smith
“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”
63
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2011
Saul Perlmutter
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”
64
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2011
Adam G. Riess
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”
65
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2011
Brian P. Schmidt
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”
66
The Nobel Prize in Physics
2012
David J. Wineland
“for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”
67
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1914
Theodore W. Richards
“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”
68
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1932
Irving Langmuir
“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”
69
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1934
Harold C. Urey
“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”
70
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1946
James B. Sumner
“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”
71
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1946
Wendell M. Stanley
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”
72
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1946
John H. Northrop
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”
73
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1951
Edwin M. McMillan
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”
74
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1951
Glenn T. Seaborg
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”
75
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1954
Linus Pauling
“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”
76
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1955
Vincent du Vigneaud
“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”
77
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1960
Willard F. Libby
“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”
78
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1961
Melvin Calvin
“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”
79
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1965
Robert B. Woodward
“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”
80
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1966
Robert S. Mulliken
“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”
81
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1972
Christian Anfinsen
“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”
82
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1972
Stanford Moore
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”
83
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1972
William H. Stein
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”
84
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1974
Paul J. Flory
“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”
85
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1976
William Lipscomb
“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”
86
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1980
Paul Berg
“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”
87
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1980
Walter Gilbert
“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”
88
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1984
Bruce Merrifield
“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”
89
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1985
Herbert A. Hauptman
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”
90
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1985
Jerome Karle
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”
91
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1986
Dudley R. Herschbach
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”
92
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1987
Donald J. Cram
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”
93
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1989
Thomas R. Cech
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”
94
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1990
Elias James Corey
“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”
95
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1993
Kary B. Mullis
“for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”
96
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1995
F. Sherwood Rowland
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”
97
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1996
Robert F. Curl Jr.
“for their discovery of fullerenes”
98
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1996
Richard E. Smalley
“for their discovery of fullerenes”
99
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1997
Paul D. Boyer
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”
100
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2000
Alan Heeger
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”
101
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2001
William Knowles
“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”
102
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2001
Barry Sharpless
“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”
103
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2002
John B. Fenn
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”
104
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2003
Peter Agre
“for the discovery of water channels”
105
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2003
Roderick MacKinnon
“for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”
106
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2004
Irwin Rose
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”
107
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2005
Robert H. Grubbs
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”
108
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2005
Richard R. Schrock
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”
109
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2006
Roger D. Kornberg
“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”
110
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2008
Martin Chalfie
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”
111
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2008
Roger Y. Tsien
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”
112
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2009
Thomas A. Steitz
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”
113
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2010
Richard F. Heck
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”
114
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz
“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”
115
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2012
Brian Kobilka
“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”
116
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2014
Eric Betzig
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”
117
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2014
William E. Moerner
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”
118
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry
2015
Paul Modrich
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”
119
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1933
Thomas H. Morgan
“for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”
120
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1934
George R. Minot
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”
121
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1934
William P. Murphy
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”
122
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1934
George H. Whipple
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”
123
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1943
Edward A. Doisy
“for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”
124
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1944
Joseph Erlanger
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”
125
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1944
Herbert S. Gasser
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”
126
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1946
Hermann J. Muller
“for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”
127
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1950
Edward C. Kendall
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”
128
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1950
Philip S. Hench
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”
129
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1954
John F. Enders
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”
130
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1954
Frederick C. Robbins
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”
131
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1954
Thomas H. Weller
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”
132
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1956
Dickinson W. Richards
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”
133
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1958
George Beadle
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”
134
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1958
Joshua Lederberg
“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”
135
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1958
Edward Tatum
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”
136
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1959
Arthur Kornberg
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”
137
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1962
James Watson
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”
138
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1966
Peyton Rous
“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”
139
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1967
Keffer Hartline
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”
140
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1967
George Wald
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”
141
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1968
Robert W. Holley
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”
142
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1968
Marshall W. Nirenberg
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”
143
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1969
Alfred D. Hershey
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”
144
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1970
Julius Axelrod
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”
145
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1971
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”
146
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1972
Gerald M. Edelman
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”
147
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1975
David Baltimore
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”
148
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1975
Howard M. Temin
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”
149
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1976
Baruch S. Blumberg
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”
150
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1976
D. Carleton Gajdusek
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”
151
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1977
Rosalyn Yalow
“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”
152
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1978
Daniel Nathans
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”
153
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1978
Hamilton O. Smith
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”
154
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1980
George D. Snell
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”
155
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1981
Roger W. Sperry
“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”
156
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1983
Barbara McClintock
“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”
157
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1985
Michael S. Brown
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”
158
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1985
Joseph L. Goldstein
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”
159
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1986
Stanley Cohen
“for their discoveries of growth factors”
160
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1988
Gertrude B. Elion
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”
161
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1988
George H. Hitchings
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”
162
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1989
J. Michael Bishop
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”
163
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1989
Harold E. Varmus
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”
164
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1990
Joseph E. Murray
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”
165
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1990
E. Donnall Thomas
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”
166
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1992
Edwin G. Krebs
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”
167
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1993
Phillip A. Sharp
“for their discoveries of split genes”
168
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1994
Alfred G. Gilman
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”
169
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1994
Martin Rodbell
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”
170
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1995
Edward B. Lewis
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”
171
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1995
Eric F. Wieschaus
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”
172
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1997
Stanley B. Prusiner
“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”
173
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1998
Robert F. Furchgott
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”
174
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1998
Louis J. Ignarro
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”
175
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1998
Ferid Murad
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”
176
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2000
Paul Greengard
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”
177
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2001
Leland Hartwell
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”
178
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2002
H. Robert Horvitz
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”
179
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2003
Paul C. Lauterbur
“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”
180
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2004
Richard Axel
“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”
181
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2004
Linda B. Buck
“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”
182
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2006
Andrew Z. Fire
“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”
183
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2006
Craig C. Mello
“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”
184
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2009
Carol W. Greider
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”
185
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2011
Bruce A. Beutler
“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”
186
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2013
James E. Rothman
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”
187
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2013
Randy W. Schekman
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”
188
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2014
John O’Keefe
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”
189
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1930
Sinclair Lewis
“for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters”
190
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1936
Eugene O’Neill
“for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”
191
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1938
Pearl Buck
“for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”
192
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1948
T.S. Eliot
“for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”
193
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1949
William Faulkner
“for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”
194
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1954
Ernest Hemingway
“for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”
195
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1962
John Steinbeck
“for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”
196
The Nobel Prize in Literature
1993
Toni Morrison
“who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”
197
The Nobel Prize in Literature
2016
Bob Dylan
“for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”
198
The Nobel Peace Prize
1906
Theodore Roosevelt
199
The Nobel Peace Prize
1912
Elihu Root
200
The Nobel Peace Prize
1919
Woodrow Wilson
201
The Nobel Peace Prize
1925
Charles G. Dawes
202
The Nobel Peace Prize
1929
Frank B. Kellogg
203
The Nobel Peace Prize
1931
Jane Addams
204
The Nobel Peace Prize
1931
Nicholas Murray Butler
205
The Nobel Peace Prize
1945
Cordell Hull
206
The Nobel Peace Prize
1946
Emily Greene Balch
207
The Nobel Peace Prize
1946
John R. Mott
208
The Nobel Peace Prize
1950
Ralph Bunche
209
The Nobel Peace Prize
1953
George C. Marshall
210
The Nobel Peace Prize
1962
Linus Pauling
211
The Nobel Peace Prize
1964
Martin Luther King Jr.
212
The Nobel Peace Prize
1970
Norman Borlaug
213
The Nobel Peace Prize
1997
Jody Williams
“for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”
214
The Nobel Peace Prize
2002
Jimmy Carter
“for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”
215
The Nobel Peace Prize
2007
Al Gore
“for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”
216
The Nobel Peace Prize
2009
Barack H. Obama
“for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”
217
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1970
Paul A. Samuelson
“for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”
218
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1972
Kenneth J. Arrow
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”
219
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1976
Milton Friedman
“for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy”
220
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1978
Herbert Simon
“for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations”
221
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1979
Theodore W. Schultz
“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”
222
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1980
Lawrence R. Klein
“for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies”
223
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1981
James Tobin
“for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”
224
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1982
George J. Stigler
“for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”
225
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1986
James M. Buchanan Jr.
“for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”
226
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1987
Robert M. Solow
“for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”
227
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1990
Harry M. Markowitz
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”
228
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1990
Merton H. Miller
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”
229
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1990
William F. Sharpe
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”
230
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1992
Gary Becker
“for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour”
231
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1993
Robert W. Fogel
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”
232
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1993
Douglass C. North
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”
233
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1994
John F. Nash Jr.
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”
234
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1995
Robert E. Lucas Jr.
“for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”
235
The Prize in Economic Sciences
1997
Robert C. Merton
“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”
236
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2000
James J. Heckman
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”
237
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2000
Daniel L. McFadden
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”
238
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2001
George A. Akerlof
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”
239
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2001
A. Michael Spence
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”
240
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2001
Joseph E. Stiglitz
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”
241
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2002
Vernon L. Smith
“for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”
242
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2003
Robert F. Engle III
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”
243
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2004
Edward C. Prescott
“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”
244
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2005
Thomas C. Schelling
“for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”
245
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2006
Edmund S. Phelps
“for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”
246
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2007
Eric S. Maskin
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”
247
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2007
Roger B. Myerson
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”
248
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2008
Paul Krugman
“for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”
249
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2009
Elinor Ostrom
“for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”
250
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2009
Oliver E. Williamson
“for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm”
251
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2010
Peter A. Diamond
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”
252
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2010
Dale T. Mortensen
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”
253
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2011
Thomas J. Sargent
“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”
254
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2011
Christopher A. Sims
“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”
255
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2012
Lloyd S. Shapley
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”
256
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2012
Alvin E. Roth
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”
257
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2013
Eugene F. Fama
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”
258
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2013
Robert J. Shiller
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”
259
The Prize in Economic Sciences
2013
Lars Peter Hansen
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”